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FORTRESS OF THE EMPIRE: Spanish Colonial Fortifications of the Philippines, 1565-1898


by Rene Javellana, S.J.

Photography by Jose Ma. Lorenzo P. Tan

Winner, National Book Award, Book Design, 1997

Beginning in 1965, Spanish colonists built fortifications to protect themselves and their emerging settlements. Over the next three hundred years of colonial rule, a string of permanent fortifications was built throughout the Philippine Archipelago, not bypassing even tiny and remote islands. This defense net was built to contain perceived enemies of Spanish hegemony.

While focusing on the architecture of fortifications and documenting the architectural initiative of the military and of local communities, Fortress of the Empire: Spanish Colonial Fortifications in The Philippines, 1565-1898 situates this initiative in the social and historical forces that constrained people to make the Philippines a fortified archipelago.

Copyright © 1997

ISBN: 971-569-199-4

Hardcover | 11.5" x 9" | 209 pages | Full-color

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